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1.0 学而篇第一​

Xué ér piān dì yī​


1.1

子 曰:  “学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?”



Zǐ yuē:  “Xué ér shí xí zhī, bù yì yuè hū? Yǒupéng zì yuǎnfāng lái, bù yì lè hū? Rén bùzhī ér bù yùn, bù yì jūnzǐ hū?”





The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application? Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters? Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?"





​1.2


有子曰:“其为人也孝弟,而好犯上者,鲜矣;不好犯上,而好作乱者,未之有也。君子务本,本立而道生。孝弟也者,其为仁之本与!”



Yǒu zǐ yuē:“Qí wéirén yě xiàodì, ér hǎo fànshàng zhě, xiān yǐ; bù hǎo fànshàng, ér hǎo zuòluàn zhě, wèi zhī yǒu yě. Jūnzǐ wù běn, běnlì ér dàoshēng. Xiàodì yě zhě, qí wèi rénzhī běn yǔ!”



The philosopher You said, "They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion. The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission! - are they not the root of all benevolent actions?"





1.3

子曰:“巧言令色,鲜矣仁!”



Zǐ yuē:“Qiǎoyánlìngsè, xiān yǐ rén!”





The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."





1.4

曾子曰:“吾日三省吾身:为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?”



zēng  zǐ yuē: “Wú rì sān xǐngwú shēn: Wéirén móu ér bù zhōng hū? Yǔ péngyǒu jiāo ér bùxìn hū? Chuán bù xí hū?”





The philosopher Zeng said, "I daily examine myself on three points: whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful; whether, in my interaction with friends, I may have been not sincere; whether I may have not mastered and practised the instructions of my teacher."





1.5

子曰:“道千乘之国:敬事而信,节用而爱人,使民以时。”



Zǐ yuē:“Dào qiān chéng zhī guó: Jìng shì ér xìn, jié yòng ér àirén, shǐ mín yǐ shí.”



The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the employment of the people at the proper seasons."





1.6

子曰:“弟子入则孝,出则弟,谨而信,泛爱众,而亲仁。行有馀力,则以学文。”





Zǐ yuē:“Dìzǐ rù zé xiào, chū zé dì, jǐn ér xìn, fàn ài zhòng, ér qīn rén. Xíng yǒu yú lì, zé yǐ xué wén.”



The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies."





1.7

子夏曰:“贤贤易色,事父母能竭其力,事君能致其身,与朋友交言而有信。虽曰未学,吾必谓之学矣。”



Zi xià yuē:“Xián xián yì sè, shì fùmǔ néng jié qí lì, shì jūn néng zhì qí shēn, yǔ péngyǒu jiāo yán ér yǒu xìn. Suī yuē wèi xué, wú bì wèi zhī xué yǐ.”



Zi Xia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his lord, he can devote his life; if, in his interaction with his friends, his words are sincere - although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has."





1.8

子曰:“君子不重则不威,学则不固。主忠信,无友不如己者,过则勿惮改。”



Zǐ yuē:“Jūnzǐ bù chóng zé bù wēi, xué zé bù gù. Zhǔ zhōngxìn, wú yǒu bùrú jǐ zhě,guò zé wù dàn gǎi.”



The Master said, "If the scholar is not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid. Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. Have no friends who are not like yourself in this. When you have faults, do not fear to correct them."





1.9

曾子曰:“慎终追远,民德归厚矣。”





zēng zǐ yuē:“Shènzhōngzhuīyuǎn, mín dé guī hòu yǐ.”





The philosopher Zeng said, "Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice - then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."





1.10

子禽问于子贡曰:“夫子至于是邦也,必闻其政,求之与?抑与之与?”子贡曰:“夫子温、良、恭、俭、让以得之。夫子之求之也,其诸异乎人之求之与?”



Zi qín wèn yú zi gòng yuē:“Fūzǐ zhìyú shì bāng yě, bì wén qí zhèng, qiú zhī yǔ? Yì yǔ zhī yǔ?” Zi gòng yuē:“Fūzǐ wēn, liáng, gōng, jiǎn, ràng yǐ dé zhī. Fūzǐ zhī qiú zhī yě, qí zhū yìhū rén zhī qiú zhī yǔ?”





Zi Qin asked Zi Gong, saying, "When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?" Zi Gong said, "Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his information. The master's mode of asking information! - is it not different from that of other men?"





1.11

子曰:“父在,观其志;父没,观其行;三年无改于父之道,可谓孝矣。”



Zǐ yuē:“Fù zài, guān qí zhì; fù mò, guān qí xíng; sān nián wú gǎi yú fǔ zhī dào, kěwèi xiào yǐ.”





The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, observe his intent; when his father is dead, observe his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."





1.12

有子曰:“礼之用,和为贵。先王之道斯为美,小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以礼节之,亦不可行也。”



Yǒu zǐ yuē:“Lǐ zhī yòng, hé wéi guì. Xiānwáng zhī dào sī wèi měi, xiǎo dà yóu zhī. Yǒu suǒ bùxíng, zhī hé ér hé, bù yǐ lǐjié zhī, yì bùkě xíng yě.”



The philosopher You said, "In practising the rules of propriety, harmony is the key. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them. Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. To act in harmony simply because one understands what is harmonious, but not to regulate one’s conduct according to propriety: indeed, one cannot act in that way.





1.13

有子曰:“信近于义,言可复也;恭近于礼,远耻辱也;因不失其亲,亦可宗也。”



Yǒu zǐ yuē:“Xìn jìn yú yì, yán kě fù yě; gōng jìn yú lǐ, yuǎn chǐrǔ yě; yīn bù shī qí qīn, yì kě zōng yě.”



The philosopher You said, "When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters."





1.14

子曰:“君子食无求饱,居无求安,敏于事而慎于言,就有道而正焉,可谓好学也已。”





Zǐ yuē:“Jūnzǐ shí wú qiú bǎo, jū wú qiú ān, mǐn yú shì ér shèn yú yán, jiù yǒu dào ér zhèng yān, kěwèi hàoxué yě yǐ.”



The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified - such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."





1.15




子贡曰:“贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?”子曰:“可也。未若贫而乐,富而好礼者也。”子贡曰:“《诗》云:‘如切如磋,如琢如磨。’其斯之谓与?”子曰:“赐也,始可与言诗已矣!告诸往而知来者。”






Zi gòng yuē:“Pín ér wú chǎn, fù ér wú jiāo, hérú?” Zǐ yuē:“Kě yě. Wèi ruò pín ér lè, fù ér hǎo lǐ zhě yě.” Zi gòng yuē:““Shī” yún:‘Rú qiè rú cuō, rú zuó rú mó.’ Qí sī zhī wèi yǔ?” Zǐ yuē:“Cì yě, shǐ kě yǔ yán shī yǐ yǐ! Gào zhū wǎng ér zhī lái zhě.”



Zi Gong said, "What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety." Zi Gong replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.' - The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed." The Master said, "With one like Ci, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence."





1.16

子曰:“不患人之不己知,患不知人也。”



Zǐ yuē:“Bù huàn rén zhī bù jǐ zhī, huàn bùzhī rén yě.”



The Master said: Do not be concerned that no one recognizes your merits. Be concerned that you may not recognize others’.