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2.0 为政第二


Wéi zhèng dì èr


2.1
子曰:“为政以德,譬如北辰,居其所而众星共之。”


Zǐ yuē:“Wéi zhèng yǐ dé, pìrú běichén, jū qí suǒ ér zhòng xīng gòng zhī.”

The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."


2.2

子曰:“诗三百,一言以蔽之,曰‘思无邪’。”


Zǐ yuē:“Shī sānbǎi, yī yán yǐ bì zhī, yuē ‘sī wú xié’.”


The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence - 'Having no depraved thoughts.'"


2.3

子曰:“道之以政,齐之以刑,民免而无耻;道之以德,齐之以礼,有耻且格。”


Zǐ yuē:“Dào zhī yǐ zhèng, qí zhī yǐ xíng, mín miǎn ér wúchǐ; dào zhī yǐ dé, qí zhī yǐ lǐ, yǒu chǐ qiě gé.”

The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have a sense of shame, and moreover will become good."


2.4
子曰:“吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十而不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。

Zǐ yuē:“Wú shí yǒu wǔ ér zhì yú xué, sānshí érlì, sìshí ér bùhuò, wǔshí ér zhī tiānmìng, liùshí ér ěrshùn, qīshí ér cóngxīnsuǒyù, bù yú jǔ.

The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning. At thirty, I stood firm. At forty, I had no doubts. At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven. At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth. At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

 2.5
孟懿子问孝。子曰:“无违。”樊迟御,子告之曰:“孟孙问孝于我,我对曰‘无违’。”樊迟曰:“何谓也?”子曰:“生事之以礼;死葬之以礼,祭之以礼。”

Mèngyìzi wèn xiào. Zǐ yuē:“Wú wéi.” Fán chí yù, zi gào zhī yuē:“Mèng sūn wèn xiào yú wǒ, wǒ duì yuē ‘wú wéi’.” Fán chí yuē:“Héwèi yě?” Zǐ yuē:“Shēng shì zhī yǐ lǐ; sǐ zàng zhī yǐ lǐ, jì zhī yǐ lǐ.”

Meng Yi asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient." Soon after, as Fan Chi was driving the chariot with the Master, the Master told him, saying, "Meng-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him, - 'not being disobedient.'" Fan Chi said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "When the parents alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."

 2.6
孟武伯问孝。子曰:“父母唯其疾之忧。”
 

Mèngwǔbó wèn xiào. Zǐ yuē:“Fùmǔ wéi qí jí zhī yōu.”

Meng Wubo asked about what filial piety was. The Master said, “Let your parent need to be concerned only for your health.”

 
2.7
子游问孝。子曰:“今之孝者,是谓能养。至于犬马,皆能有养;不敬,何以别乎?”

Zǐ yóu wèn xiào. Zǐ yuē:“Jīn zhīxiào zhě, shì wèi néng yǎng. Zhìyú quǎnmǎ, jiē néng yǒu yǎng; bùjìng, héyǐ bié hū?”

 Zi You asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support; - without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

 
2.8
子夏问孝。子曰:“色难。有事弟子服其劳,有酒食先生馔,曾是以为孝乎?”

Zi xià wèn xiào. Zǐ yuē:“Sè nán. Yǒushì dìzǐ fú qí láo, yǒu jiǔshí xiānshēng zhuàn, céng shì yǐwéi xiào hū?”


Zi Xia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is This to be considered filial piety?"

 
2.9
子曰:“吾与回言终日,不违如愚。退而省其私,亦足以发。回也,不愚。”

 Zǐ yuē:“Wú yǔ huí yán zhōngrì, bù wéi rú yú. Tuì ér shěng qí sī, yì zúyǐ fā. Huí yě, bù yú.”

The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said - as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui! - He is not stupid."

 
2.10
子曰:“视其所以,观其所由,察其所安。人焉廋哉?人焉廋哉?”

Zǐ yuē:“Shì qí suǒyǐ, guān qí suǒ yóu, chá qí suǒ ān. Rén yān sōu zāi? Rén yān sōu zāi?”

 The Master said, "See what a man does. Mark his motives. Examine him in what things he rests. How can a man conceal his character? How can a man conceal his character?"
 

2.11
子曰:“温故而知新,可以为师矣。”

 Zǐ yuē:“Wēngù ér zhī xīn, kěyǐ wéi shī yǐ.”

The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new knowledge, he may be a teacher of others."


2.12
子曰:“君子不器。”

Zǐ yuē: “Jūnzǐ bù qì.”

The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a tool."

 
2.13
子贡问君子。子曰:“先行其言,而后从之。”

 Zi gòng wèn jūnzǐ. Zǐ yuē:“Xiānxíng qí yán, érhòu cóng zhī.”

Zi Gong asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

 
2.14
子曰:“君子周而不比,小人比而不周。”

 Zǐ yuē:“Jūnzǐ zhōu ér bùbǐ, xiǎo rén bǐ ér bù zhōu.”

The superior man is inclusive and not a partisan; the mean man is a partisan and not inclusive.
 

2.15
子曰:“学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。”

Zǐ yuē:“Xué ér bù sī zé wǎng, sī ér bù xué zé dài.”

The Master said, "Learning without reflection will be lost; thought without learning is perilous."

 
2.16
子曰:“攻乎异端,斯害也已!”
 
Zǐ yuē:“Gōng hū yìduān, sī hài yě yǐ!”

The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"

 

2.17
子曰:“由!诲女知之乎?知之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。”

Zǐ yuē:“Yóu! Huì nǚ zhīzhī hū? Zhīzhī wéi zhīzhī, bùzhī wéi bùzhī, shì zhīyě.”

The Master said, "You, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it - this is knowledge."

 
2.18
子张学干禄。子曰:“多闻阙疑,慎言其馀,则寡尤;多见阙殆,慎行其馀,则寡悔。言寡尤,行寡悔,禄在其中矣。”

Zi zhāngxuégàn lù. Zǐ yuē:“Duō wén quē yí, shèn yán qí yú, zé guǎ yóu; duō jiàn quē dài, shèn xíng qí yú, zé guǎ huǐ. Yán guǎ yóu, xíng guǎ huǐ, lù zài qízhōng yǐ.”

Zizhang wanted to learn how to seek a salaried appointment. The Master said, “If you listen to much, put aside what seems doubtful, and assert the remainder with care, your mistakes will be few. If you observe much, put aside what seems dangerous, and act upon the remainder with care, your regrets will be few. Few mistakes in speech, few regrets in action – a salary lies therein.”

 
2.19
哀公问曰:“何为则民服?”孔子对曰:“举直错诸枉,则民服;举枉错诸直,则民不服。”

Āigōng wèn yuē:“Hé wèi zé mín fú?” Kǒngzǐ duì yuē:“Jǔ zhí cuò zhū wǎng, zé mín fú; jǔ wǎng cuò zhū zhí, zé mín bùfú.”

Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

 
2.20
季康子问:“使民敬、忠以劝,如之何?”子曰:“临之以庄则敬,孝慈则忠,举善而教不能,则劝。”

 Jì kāngzi wèn:“Shǐ mín jìng, zhōng yǐ quàn, rú zhī hé?” Zǐ yuē:“Lín zhī yǐ zhuāng zé jìng, xiàocí zé zhōng, jǔ shàn ér jiào bùnéng, zé quàn.”

Ji Kang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity; then they will reverence him. Let him be final and kind to all; then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent; then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

 

2.21
或谓孔子曰:“子奚不为政?”子曰:“《书》云:‘孝乎惟孝、友于兄弟,施于有政。’是亦为政,奚其为为政?

Huò wèi kǒngzǐ yuē:“Zi xī bù wéi zhèng?” Zǐ yuē:““Shū” yún:‘Xiào hū wéi xiào, yǒu yú xiōngdì, shī yú yǒu zhèng.’ Shì yì wéi zhèng, xī qí wèi wéi zhèng?

 Someone addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?" The Master said, "What does the Shu Jing say of filial piety? - 'You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be making one be in the government?"

 
2.22
子曰:“人而无信,不知其可也。大车无輗,小车无軏,其何以行之哉?”

Zǐ yuē:“Rén ér wú xìn, bùzhī qí kě yě. Dà chē wú ní, xiǎochē wú yuè, qí héyǐ xíng zhī zāi?”

The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the crossbar for yoking the oxen to or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

 
2.23
子张问:“十世可知也?”子曰:“殷因于夏礼,所损益,可知也;周因于殷礼,所损益,可知也;其或继周者,虽百世可知也。”

Zi zhāng wèn:“Shí shì kězhī yě?” Zǐ yuē:“Yīn yīn yú xià lǐ, suǒ sǔnyì, kězhī yě; zhōu yīn yú yīn lǐ, suǒ sǔnyì, kězhī yě; qí huò jì zhōu zhě, suī bǎishì kězhī yě.”

Zi Zhang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known. Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Xia; wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Zhou dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin; wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some others may follow the Zhou, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."

 
2.24
子曰:“非其鬼而祭之,谄也。见义不为,无勇也。”

Zǐ yuē:“Fēi qí guǐ ér jì zhī, chǎn yě. Jiàn yì bù wéi, wú yǒngyě.”

The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery. To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."